The Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) has received a grant from NORAD in support of “Sustaining the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) momentum”.
FARA intends to use part of the proceeds to undertake the following consultant services:
Consultant to measure the impact of CSA practices on agricultural total factor productivity in West and Central Africa.
FARA is Africa's apex institution for giving direction to, and, coordinating agricultural research on the continent. The Forum has a pivotal responsibility in the articulation of strategies for the continent’s agricultural transformation. FARA’s mandate is continental. To this end, it leads agricultural research and contributes to the development of the required systems of innovation in the agricultural sector. The Forum is poised to continue to play a visible and significant role, in alignment with the African Union Commission and NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency, in the implementation of the Comprehensive Africa's Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP), having served as the lead institution for Pillar IV of CAADP strategy. FARA is thus a strategic continental institution with strong and enduring relevance in Africa's agricultural transformation strategy, agenda and programmes.
The African Union Commission (AUC) and the AU NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency (NPCA) has, within the framework of the Sustaining CAADP Momentum, launched the CAADP 10-year Results Framework (CRF) to guide and accelerate implementation of CAADP at the country level. The framework underscores the need for tangible parameters to benchmark advancements in agricultural performance and reinforces the need for evidence to promote investment in agriculture. The framework aims to achieve five key results1 by (i) increasing agricultural production and productivity with the aim of doubling agricultural total factor productivity by 2025; ensuring better functioning national agricultural and food markets and increasing intra-inter-regional trade; (iii) expanding local agro-industry and value addition; and (iv) improving management and governance of natural resources for sustainable agricultural production.
To achieve these results, the AUC and AU NPCA have requested the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA) to lead a series of actions that will contribute to the CRF sub-result (i) on doubling agricultural total factor productivity. FARA’s goal is to contribute to sustainable reduction of food insecurity and poverty in Africa through the promotion of broad-based agricultural productivity, competitiveness and markets. FARA has developed the Framework for African Agricultural Productivity (FAAP) and the CAADP Pillar IV Strategy to enable agricultural research and development to contribute to agricultural productivity. FARA has also reoriented it’s strategy for increasing agricultural productivity and competiveness to focus on three strategic priority areas: (i) Visioning Africa’s agricultural transformation – with foresight, strategic analysis and partnerships; (ii) integrating capacities for change – by connecting and learning; and (iii) creating an enabling policy environment for implementation by advocating and communicating. The Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (S3A), developed by FARA, serves as the overall framework for operationalizing the new strategy.
Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA)2 is one of the areas identified in the S3A for accelerating growth in agricultural productivity. In collaboration with AU NPCA, FARA is currently implementing a CSA project funded by the Government of Norway (NORAD) to enhance understanding of local political economy factors and drivers that stimulate or hinder expanded adoption of climate smart agriculture. The project promotes knowledge support for enhanced adoption of CSA and strengthening of the capacity of African research institutions to deliver proven CSA technologies that help to increase agricultural productivity. It generates baseline data and information to support evidence-based CSA policy, programme design and performance monitoring in the context of the CRF.
1. Climate smart agriculture and agricultural total factor productivity
Agriculture is undoubtedly the most important sector in most African countries. It contributes about one third of the GDP, 40% of total export value and provides employment to about 70% of the population. Except for a few large farms, agricultural production is subsistence in nature with a high dependence on rainfall. Climate change is one of the factors constraining agriculture in Africa. Prolonged periods of drought and/or floods have had
1 The five result areas are: (i) wealth creation; (ii) economic opportunities and prosperity – jobs and poverty alleviation; (iii) improved food security and nutrition; (iv) resilience; and (v) environmental sustainability.
2 According to FAO (2010), CSA involves agriculture that sustainably increases productivity and resilience (adaptation), reduces/removes GHGs (mitigation) and enhances achievement of national food security and development goals. From the perspective of the Africa CSA Alliance, CSA offers triple wins, which include: significant potential to enhance food and nutrition security for all people at all times, taking account of the need for adaptation in response to current and near term effects of climate change and, where in the interests of smallholder farmers, mitigation to reduce the future threats to global food security (ACSA, FAQs, 2014).
significant negative impacts on agricultural production and productivity; and have adversely affected the food security, incomes and livelihoods of smallholder producers in Africa.
Climate smart agriculture has been shown to address some of the adverse effects of climate change and transform agriculture into a more sustainable and profitable sector. A wide range of CSA innovations have been developed and are being applied in different parts of Africa with varying degrees of success. Some of the innovative CSA practices have been shown to increase agricultural productivity, helped to build resilience and mitigate the effects of climate change as well as reduced the levels of greenhouse gasses (GHG). For example, conservation agriculture involving minimum soil disturbance, good soil cover maintenance, rotation and intercropping has delivered higher and more stable maize yields and incomes and enhanced resilience to climate change in Malawi compared to conventional production methods.
Considering the additional benefits of CSA3 over conventional agricultural production methods, wide-scale promotion of proven CSA practices will enhance Africa’s agricultural productivity, build its resilience and mitigate the effects of climate change. However, for farmers to take up a particular CSA practice and for public and private sector individuals to invest in a given CSA practice, it is important to know the extent to which the CSA practice contributes to agricultural productivity at the micro level and the overall performance of agriculture.
The performance of agriculture can be measured by changes in total factor productivity (TFP). TFP takes into account the contributions of all conventional inputs and captures how much is obtained out of a given combination of land, labor, capital and materials. TFP growth results from technical change and/or efficiency gains from managerial innovations that permit more production with less input. TFP components are largely influenced by innovations generated through research and development, policy and institutional reforms. Drawing from endogenous growth theory, investments in non-conventional inputs such as human capital (i.e. education, extension, training, experience and technology research) can drive TFP growth and promote technical efficiency. CSA presents ways in which conventional (land, labor, capital and materials) and non-conventional (human capital) inputs can innovatively be combined to stimulate growth in TFP. This implies that innovative CSA practices that employ these inputs can be important drivers of TFP growth. But, exactly how much of the growth in TFP is due to CSA is not quite clear.
2. Assessing the contribution of CSA to agricultural factor productivity
So far, we know very little of exactly how CSA practices stimulate changes in TFP and contribute to the performance of agriculture in Africa. We do not have adequate baseline data and information on changes in agricultural productivity and the performance of the
3 The additional benefits of CSA include the opportunities offered to farm households to increase their incomes and livelihoods through enhanced agricultural practices as well as providing better market access. Such benefits have flow-on effects to all forms of sustainable development, including enhanced health, further economic development, and even better access to education for families.
agricultural sector attributable to adoption of CSA practices. It is important to generate baseline data and information on CSA practices in order to determine the contribution of CSA to productivity gains. This will help in the context of the CRF, to judge whether or not adoption of CSA practices can indeed increase agricultural production and productivity. The data will also help to inform decisions to develop, disseminate and scale-up/out proven CSA practices.
B. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to assess the contributions of CSA practices to agricultural total factor productivity. In view of this, the REOI is aimed at soliciting for proposals from individual consultants who are interested in analytically measuring the impact of CSA practices on agricultural total factor productivity in West and Central Africa.
C. SCOPE OF WORK
The specific actions required of the individual consultant include, but are not limited to the following:
· Establish the relationship between climate smart agriculture and agricultural productivity and show how CSA can influence total factor productivity.
· Undertake a case study of two CSA practices being implemented in a given community (one in West Africa and another in Central Africa) and:
o Describe each CSA practice including its objectives and expected outcomes, methodology, target group, key stakeholders and beneficiaries;
o Quantify the absolute and relative changes in agricultural production and productivity attributable to each of the CSA practices; and
o Assess, using concrete field data and appropriate analytical tools, the contributions of each CSA practice to:
§ the development of the agricultural value chain in the community;
§ the promotion of access to markets by the producers in the community;
§ agricultural production, food security, incomes and livelihoods of the people living in the community; and
§ the demand for and use of factors of production (land, labor, capital and materials) including technologies and show how each factor has contributed to agricultural production and productivity.
· Identify the socio-economic, policy and institutional factors that have either promoted or hindered adoption and scaling-up/out of the CSA practice in the community and analyze, using the tools and field data collected, the policy implications of each factor.
· Draw logical conclusions and make policy recommendations based on the outcomes of the case study.
In addition, the consultant will be expected to work closely with the FARA/NORAD Team supervised by the FARA Divisional Manager and Strategic Priority Leader, Advocacy and Policy in consultation with the FARA M&E Specialist and the Gender Specialist.
D. OUTPUTS OR DELIVERABLES
The consultant is expected to deliver the following outputs:
- A draft inception report.
- A power point presentation of the report in a stakeholder validation workshop organized at the FARA Secretariat
- A detailed final report that incorporates comments/inputs from stakeholders to FARA Secretariat
- A policy brief that summarizes the key outcomes and recommendations of the case study.
E. DURATION OF THE ASSIGNMENT
The duration of this assignment will be forty (40) working days spread over a period of two months. The stakeholder validation workshop shall take place at the FARA Secretariat.
F. LOCATION OF THE ASSIGNMENT
Two CSA practices in a given community (one in West Africa and another in Central Africa).
G. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
The Consultant is expected to undertake the services with the highest standards of professional and ethical competence and integrity.
The Consultant shall report to the Executive Director of FARA through the Divisional Manager and Strategic Priority Leader, Advocacy and Policy.
I. FACILITIES TO BE PROVIDED BY FARA
FARA will provide the following facilities to the consultant:
- Relevant FARA related information and reference documents
- Power point presentation equipment and materials
- Economy air ticket and DSA for the field visits
J. QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE
The consultant should have the following qualifications:
- A Ph.D. degree in agriculture/social sciences or related disciplines
- Excellent quantitative skills in economic impact assessment with proven publications.
- A good understanding of climate change issues in the political, social and economic context of climate adaptation / mitigation in Africa. Good knowledge of the concepts and application of CSA in the context of Africa.
- A minimum of 10 years of professional experience in agricultural development and climate change policy research, particularly in Africa.
- A demonstration of high expertise in research / evaluation designs and methodology
- in impact assessment and evaluation designs, deep knowledge in impact assessment and evaluation instruments related to sampling, questionnaire design, field interviews, and quantitative / qualitative approaches to data collection and analysis
- Consultants should also present evidence of their use of statistical tools in the analysis and interpretation of field data, as well as proficiency in the articulation of impact assessment and evaluation reports.
- Consultants should have participated in a number of related climate change and agricultural/impact assessment and evaluation studies and should demonstrate attributes of teamwork, participatory impact assessment and evaluations and familiarity with the target countries.
- Fluency in English. Working knowledge of French will be an advantage
Interested Individual Consultants should send (via e-mail) to FARA’s address (see further below) the following documents:
(i) Technical proposal detailing their understanding of the assignment and how they would go about conducting the case study. This should include an identification and very brief description of the two CSA cases to be studied and their location; a clear outline of the methodology to be used including how the data and information will be collected, analyzed and results presented. It should also indicate the analytical tools and instruments to be used, a detailed time line for conducting the study and a draft outline of the study report;
(ii) Financial proposal providing details of the cost of each of the proposed activities, materials and fees for the consultant; and
(iii) CV of the consultant demonstrating his/her qualifications, technical competence and experience.
For further clarification, you may also directly contact Dr. Emmanuel Tambi, Divisional Manager and Strategic Priority Leader, Advocacy and Policy at: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +233 302 772823 / 779421.
Please indicate the Assignment Reference number as part of the subject of your email. Expressions of Interest must be delivered to the address above by 14:00 hours GMT, 20th February, 2015.